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        2. Health Monitoring Program

          Facility Control and Maintenance

          Mice intended for export are housed in a strictly controlled barrier facility with limited access granted only to trained laboratory and animal care personnel via key card access. Personal protective equipment, including disposable gowns, shoe covers, gloves, hair bonnets, and masks, is required for entry into the facility. Animal care personnel are dedicated to the facility and/or room to ensure strict adherence to facility protocol. Mice are housed in positive-pressure, individually ventilated cages/units (IVC/U) that are changed every 1-2 weeks. Corncob bedding and paper nest enrichment are provided to the mice, and irradiated feed is supplied. Prior to use, all caging, bedding, and enrichment are autoclaved to ensure sterility. An Edstrom automatic watering system supplies processed water (reverse osmosis, chlorinated). Once mice leave the barrier facility, they cannot return.

          Health Status

          The mice housed in the GemPharmatech facility maintain a specified and opportunistic pathogen-free (SOPF) status or germ-free (GF) status. The health status of the animals is meticulously monitored through various methods, including the use of sentinel mice, random sampling within the colony, and exhaust air dusts (EAD) testing. Detailed information regarding these monitoring procedures is described below.

          Sentinel mice: The health status of all colonies is monitored on a quarterly basis using sentinel mice. These sentinel cages contain two female mice aged between 4-6 weeks. Biweekly, the sentinel mice are exposed to soiled bedding collected from cages within their respective racks. The soiled bedding samples are pooled from multiple cages. Each rack unit contains 70 or 80 cages, and the sentinel mice are housed two per cage on each side of the rack unit. The results of these tests are reported as the number of positive samples out of the total number of testing samples. The health monitoring program includes necropsy examinations, detection of parasites, bacteria, and viruses.

          Colony random sample testing: To detect any potential microbiological issues within the colony, live mice, feces, or oral swabs are randomly sampled from immunodeficient mice and large colonies such as C57BL/6, BALB/c ,NCG mice, etc.

          EAD testing: Monthly, exhaust air dust is collected for pathogen detection through EAD testing.

          Importing Animals

          For imported mice, only animals that are specific pathogen-free (SPF) are accepted. However, they must undergo rederivation and testing before being released into the barrier facility. These animals are initially quarantined in isolators, and samples such as hair, feces, or serology samples are collected and submitted to the GemPharmatech microbial testing center for analysis. Only after passing microbial tests can the animals be transported to the breeding rooms via cesarean section or embryo transfer.

          VIRUSES Method
          Mouse Thymic Virus (MTV) PCR
          Ectromelia virus (Ect) PCR
          Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) ELISA
          Sendai virus (SV) ELISA
          Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) ELISA
          Reovirus-3 (Reo-3) ELISA/PCR
          Minute virus of mice (MVM) PCR
          Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) ELISA/PCR
          Hantavirus (HV) ELISA/PCR
          Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) ELISA/PCR
          Mouse Adenovirus FL (MAD1) PCR
          Mouse Adenovirus K87 (MAD 2) PCR
          Polyoma Virus (POLY) ELISA/PCR
          Mouse Parvovirus (MPV) PCR
          Mouse Cytomegalovirus (MCMV) PCR
          Murine Norovirus (MNV) PCR
          Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice (EDIM) PCR
          K virus PCR
          LDH elevating virus (LDV) PCR
          Murine chapparvovirus (MKPV) PCR
          BACTERIA & MYCOPLASMA Method
          Proteus mirabilis Culture
          Pasteurella multocida Culture
          Klebsiella oxytoca Culture
          Filobacterium rodentium (CAR Bacillus) PCR
          Helicobacter spp. (e.g. H. hepaticus, H. bilis, H. muridarum, H. rodentium) PCR
          Pneumocystis spp. PCR
          Citrobacter rodentium Culture
          Bordetella Bronchus Culture
          Mycoplasma spp. PCR
          Salmonella spp. Culture
          Mycoplasma?pulmonis PCR
          Corynebacterium?kutscheri Culture
          Tyzzer's?organism PCR
          Pasteurella?pneumotropica (Rodentibacter pneumotropicus, Rodentibacter heylii) Culture
          Klebsiella pneumoniae Culture
          Staphylococcus aureus Culture
          Pseudomonas aeruginosa Culture
          Pathogenic dermal fungi PCR
          Streptobacillus moniliformis Culture
          Corynebacterium?bovis PCR
          PARASITES & PROTOZOA Method
          Eimeria spp. Micro
          Entamoeba Micro
          Endoparasites (tapeworms, pinworms, and other helminths) Micro
          Flagellatas (e.g. Giardia muris, Spironucleus muris, etc.) Micro
          Toxoplasma gondii PCR
          Ectoparasites, e.g., fleas, mites, and lice Micro
          Ciliata Micro
          Encephalitozoon?cunicul PCR
          OTHER Method
          Pinworms PCR
          Furmites PCR


          Additionally, GemPharmatech partners with several respected institutions and organizations to breed and house mice. For information on the health monitoring and testing practices of these facilities, please contact us.